Shell quality was restored by September 1915, but never to the full exacting standards of pre-war manufacture. After 1916, the 75 batteries became the carriers of choice to deliver toxic gas shells, including mustard gas and phosgene. Captain Sainte-Claire Deville also designed important additional features, such as a device for piercing the fuzes of shrapnel shells automatically during the firing sequence (an "automatic fuze-setter"), thus selecting the desired bursting distance. Many were captured by Germany during the Fall of France in 1940, in addition to Polish guns captured in 1939. Non-modified remainders were used as second-line and coastal artillery pieces under the German designation 7.5 cm FK 231(f) and 7,5 cm FK 97(p). In 1915 Britain acquired a number of "autocanon de 75 mm mle 1913" anti-aircraft guns, as a stopgap measure while it developed its own anti-aircraft alternatives. [13] [14]. 75 mm/50 (2.95") Model 1922, 1924 and 1927. The French 75 gave its best performances during the Battle of the Marne in August–September 1914 and at Verdun in 1916. The field gun origins of the ordnance and ammunition ensured that the M2/3/6 series HE round was highly effective for its caliber. B-25H "Barbie III" showing 75mm M5 gun and 4 Browning 50 cal feeds. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for "seventy-five"). The French 75 introduced a new concept in artillery technology: rapid firing without realigning the gun after each shot. Various deceptions, some of them linked to the Dreyfus Case which erupted in 1894, had been implemented by Deloye and French counter-intelligence to distract German espionage.[5]. The Canon de 75 modèle 1897 is still used in France as a saluting gun. … Further, 40 former French Shermans equipped with French AMX-13 turrets were captured from Egypt in 1956. [2][3] It was the first field gun to include a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, which kept the gun's trail and wheels perfectly still during the firing sequence. [15] There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. How France's Deadly 75mm Cannon Revolutionized Artillery. The 76mm gun was also able to fire shells at a higher velocity. The total consumption of 75 mm shells at Verdun during the period February 21 to September 30, 1916, is documented by the public record at the Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre to have been in excess of 16 million rounds, or nearly 70% of all shells fired by French artillery during that battle. Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897. 2. The aerodynamic ballistic cap acted as a windscreen and improved ballistic performance, maintained velocity, and retained penetration at longer ranges. M72 was replaced by the 6.8 kg (15 lb) M61 and later the improved M61A1 APC Shell. Army. Many others were used for training until 1942. French 75 shells, at least initially in 1914, were essentially anti-personnel. Hydraulic fluid leakage was typical of this experimental phase of artillery development during the 1890s, as Haussner and Krupp had previously experienced. The main gun was seen as a means of overcoming obstacles as the tank proceeded to attack vital enemy rear areas. 75-mm Gun. The western allies countered by equipping increasing numbers of M4 Medium tanks with the 76 mm gun M1 for the Americans and the Ordnance QF 17 pounder for the British. By 1945 the outcry from US Army tankers had reached the ears of General Eisenhower too many times. 1903. The lightweight M6 and M5 variants were developed to equip the Light Tank M24 and the B-25 Mitchell bomber. The major difference of ATG is specialized gun carriage. When made ready for action, the first shot buried the trail spade and the two wheel anchors into the ground, following which all other shots were fired from a stable platform. However, as an anti-tank gun, the gun was mediocre at best: its low muzzle velocity (570 m/s, caused by the short L/36 barrel and obsolete French 75mm ammo) allowed it to penetrate only 75mm armor at 500m (in World of Tanks terms, it’s probably somewhere around 90mm pen). Updated 28 March 2013 -, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell, canon de 75 M(montagne) modèle 1919 Schneider, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/19326/tunurile-re%C5%9Fi%C5%A3ei, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/721/artileria-rom%C3%A2n%C4%83-%C3%AEn-date-%C5%9Fi-imagini, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group - 75-MM GUN M1897, U.S. ARMY, "Investiture du Président : les coups de canons étaient... made in United States ! British and American Artillery of World War II, Ian V. Hogg, Arms & Armour Press, 1978, p. 22, Canon de 75 mm. For political purposes, the sale to the British Purchasing Commission was made through the US Steel Corporation. M61 had a muzzle velocity of 620 m/s (2,030 ft/s) and was credited with the ability to penetrate 3.7 inches (94 mm) of armor plate at 500 yards range, which was a quite acceptable performance by the standards of 1942. After 1915 and the onset of trench warfare, other types of battlefield missions demanding impact-detonated high-explosive shells prevailed. The AP shell for the 75 mm gun was a 15 lb (6.8 kg) projectile with a couple of ounces (60 g) of HE filling propelled by a 2 lb (900 g) charge to 2,000 feet per second (610 m/s). The M3 GMC also formed the equipment of the early American tank destroyer battalions during operations in North Africa and Italy, and continued in use with the British in Italy and in small numbers in Northern Europe until the end of the war. Its relatively low velocity and a lack of modern armor-piercing ammunition limited its effectiveness as an anti-tank weapon. A truck-mounted anti-aircraft version of the French 75 was assembled by the automobile firm of De Dion-Bouton and adopted in 1913. Over 3,500 were modified with a muzzle brake and mounted on a 5 cm Pak 38 carriage, now named 7.5 cm Pak 97/38 they were used by the Wehrmacht in 1942 as an emergency weapon against the Soviet Union's T-34 and KV tanks. France 75 mm/35 (2.95") Model 1925 and 1928. This led to an epidemic of burst barrels which afflicted 75 mm artillery during 1915. In 1939 the Polish army had 1,374 of these guns, making it by far the most numerous artillery piece in Polish service.[8]. The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. The 75mm M2 and M3 tank guns of the M3 Lee and M4 Sherman Medium tanks, the 75mm M6 tank gun of the M24 Chaffee light tank and the 75mm gun of the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell bomber all used the same ammunition as the M1897. [17] When the French Army discarded its 105 HM2 howitzers to replace them with MO-120-RT mortars,[18] only 155mm artillery pieces remained, for which no blank cartridges were available. 3) An early hydro-pneumatic short recoil m… Uses the same ammunition and has the same ballistics as the M3. The French 75mm quick firing field gun was a game changing weapon. The upgrade was made with removable barrels. The French 75:The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery (Osprey New Vanguard 288) | Steven J. Zaloga | download | B–OK. The total production of 75 mm shells during World War I exceeded 200 million rounds, mostly by private industry. [7] This rate of fire, the gun's accuracy, and the lethality of the ammunition against personnel, made the French 75 superior to all other regimental field artillery at the time. This moring I you tubed 88mm flak gun and saw it … The first armor-piercing round was the 18 lb (8.2 kg) M72 AP-T, a plain uncapped AP round whose performance dropped off as range increased due to poor aerodynamics. A version derived from the T13E1 for the Light Tank M24. [9] At the Armistice there were 29 guns in service in Britain. The Deport 75 was returned to Puteaux arsenal for further improvements. Initially produced under great secrecy, with details of its design jealously guarded by the French government, the soixante-quinze went on to have a long, worldwide history of service that lasted well into World War II. Albert Deport, Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho. NEW VANGUARD N. 288. The armor piercing cap,made of a softer metal, helped to prevent shell shatter at higher velocities and against sloped and "face-hardened" armor. These weapons were employed as light coastal artillery and were not declared obsolete until March 1945.[12]. 3-4 rpm sustained (dependent on rate of cooling), A 5.3-kilogram (12 lb) impact-detonated, thin-walled steel, high-explosive (HE) shell with a time-delay, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 14:25. The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. The French 75 was a devastating anti-personnel weapon against waves of infantry attacking in the open, as at the Marne and Verdun. Both the tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. A rapid-firing French 75mm field-gun being used by the Germans as an anti-aircraft gun somewhere on the Western Front. In between the wars the US army kept the mle 1897 as their main field gun and these came in a number of variants, the initial versions made in France, versions built under licence in the US, and later versions with slightly different carriages. They were also the main armament of the Saint-Chamond tank in 1918. The excessive reliance on the 75 mm field gun, a doctrine developed by the General Staff during the pre-war years, cost hundreds of thousands of French lives that were lost during the unsuccessful Joffre offensives (Artois/Champagne) in 1915. But even before the 57 entered testing, in 1890 General Mathieu, Director of Artillery at the Ministry of War, had been informed that Konrad Haussner, a German engineer working at the Ingolstadt arsenal, had patented an oil-and-compressed-air long-recoil system. M2 75 mm gun as mounted in medium tank M3. French 75 mm field gun Mle 1897, designated in Poland as 75 mm armata wz. ", L’ARTILLERIE FRANÇAISE DE 1945 A 1990 (LES PIÈCES ET LEUR ENVIRONNEMENT), http://www.1939.pl/uzbrojenie/polskie/artyleria/a_75mm_wz97/index.html, Manual For The Battery Commander. With the exception of the German " 42," no gun in the war has created more interest than the famous French 75-mra. The gun could be traversed laterally 3 degrees to the sides by sliding the trail on the wheel's axle. field gun… Enlisted men from the countryside took care of the 6 horses that pulled each gun and its first limber. The French 75 was designed as an anti-personnel weapon system for delivering large volumes of time-fused shrapnel shells on enemy troops advancing in the open. That second cylinder contained a freely floating piston which separated the surging oil from a confined volume of compressed air. 3. US 75mm AP and APCBC-HE shell models. The French Model 1897 75mm cannon was a quick-firing, accurate, and dependable artillery piece that became practically the quintessential Allied cannon in World War I. The versatile and mobile French 75mm cannon was a revolutionary design that saw widespread use during both world wars. Every shell, whether it be a high-explosive or shrapnel shell, was fixed to a brass case which was automatically ejected when the breech was opened. At the opening of World War I, in 1914, the French Army had about 4,000 of these field guns in service. Some of the guns had their wheels and part of their carriages cut away so that they could be mounted on a pedestal called a "Mounting, 75mm Mk 1". Colonel Joseph-Albert Deport, at the time the Director of the Atelier de Construction de Puteaux (APX), and asked him whether he could construct a gun on the general principle of the Haussner long-cylinder recoil without infringing the existing patents. During World War II through Lend Lease, the British received 170 American half-track M3 Gun Motor Carriage which mounted a 75mm; they used these in Italy and Northern Europe until the end of the war as fire support vehicles in Armoured Car Regiments. TM 9-305 Technical Manual 75-MM Gun Matériel, M1897 and Modifications. What a great result, big thanks David, I keep on reading about a gun called 75mm Schneider nle 1914 but I cant find any data, is it the same as the 75mm Puteaux mle 1897/33 ?, one more thing David, are the above AA guns all 75mm L/51, because this weapon keeps cropping up in my French … [citation needed] In the case of Verdun, over 1,000 French 75s (250 batteries) were constantly in action, night and day, on the battlefield during a period of nearly nine months. In March of 1945 he wrote to the commanding generals of both the US 2nd and 3rdArmored Divisions on the subject of the Panther, stating: From time to time I find short stories where some reporter is purpor… Each Mle 1897 75 mm field gun battery (4 guns) was manned by highly trained crews of 170 men led by 4 officers recruited among graduates of engineering schools. The '75 mm modèle 1922', '75 mm modèle 1924' and '75 mm modèle 1927'[22] of 50 calibre were developed from the 62.5 calibre '75 mm Schneider modèle 1908' mounted on the Danton-class battleships. [citation needed], Despite obsolescence brought on by new developments in artillery design, large numbers of 75s were still in use in 1939 (4,500 in the French army alone), and they eventually found their way into a number of unlikely places. The US decided early in World War I to switch from 3-inch (76 mm) to 75 mm calibre for its field guns. I read that the Tank Destroyer forces started with the famed French 75mm gun. The US 75 mm gun tank gun M2 and the later M3 were the standard American tank guns of the Second World War. In the 1930s the French Army sought a replacement for the derivatives of the 75 mm mle 1897 field gun it used as an anti-tank gun. Some models were modernized at Resita works in 1935 including French md. During the breakout from Normandy American and British forces encountered the new generation of heavy German tanks and armored vehicles such as the Panther tank, Tiger I tank and Jagdpanzer IV tank destroyer in quantity for the first time. Each recoil cycle on the French 75, including the return forward, lasted about two seconds, permitting a maximum attainable firing rate of about 30 rounds per minute. Elevation range of the gun in this turret was +13 to -6 degrees. Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. For example according to the French Ministry of Defense the shot should penetrate 89mm @ 0° @ 500m. This action absorbed the recoil progressively as the internal air pressure rose and, at the end of recoil, generated a strong but decreasing back pressure that returned the gun forward to its original position. The wheel brakes could be swung under each wheel ("abattage"), and, together with the trail spade, they immobilized the gun during firing. The French 75 is widely regarded as the first modern artillery piece. Recueil de renseignements sur le matériel et les munitions de l'artillerie de côte. Their contribution was a leakproof hydro-pneumatic long-recoil mechanism which they named "Frein II" (Brake # II). When the German 7.5 cm Pak 40 became available in sufficient numbers, most remaining Pak 97/38 pieces were returned to occupied France to reinforce the Atlantic Wall defenses or were supplied to Axis nations like Romania (PAK 97/38) and Hungary. Most modern at a time of its design, it remained in a frontline service until World War II. By 1918 the 75s became the main agents of delivery for toxic gas shells. Over 17,500 Mle 1897 75 mm field guns were produced during World War I, over and above the 4,100 French 75s which were already deployed by the French Army in August 1914. During the 1930s, most M1897A2 and A3 (French made) and M1897A4 (American made) guns were subsequently modernized for towing behind trucks by mounting on the modern carriage M2A3 which featured a split trail, pneumatic rubber tires allowing towing at any speed, an elevation limit increased to 45 degrees, and traverse increased to 30 degrees left and right. My father trained on the 3 inch gun while originally with the tank destroyers. 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