Bryan D. Vogt (Associate Editor). 3.0k SHARES.  It shows high resistance towards heat, electricity and chemical action. Bakelite has emerged out as a huge commercial success and its uses know no boundaries. There were several reasons for the research into plastics in the nineteenth century, among them the great advances that had been made in the field of 3 and the search for … Based on the above-mentioned properties of the Bakelite, here are some of its uses-. BAKELITE - The birth of modem plastics reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Economics & Business subject. Sustained heating results in an "insoluble hard gum". Vedantu academic counsellor will be calling you shortly for your Online Counselling session. Overview of Structure Of Bakelite. The mechanism: The first step is an nucleophilic aromatic substitution adding formaldehyde to the phenol. Melting point 314 k Boiling point 455 k Solubility in water 8.3 g/100 ml (20 oC) Acidity (Pka) 9.95 Flash point 79 oC Preparation of Bakelite o Chemicals required: 1. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It is hard for us to imagine our life without plastic. tsvanmeet May 22, 2010 . Bakelite was unique because it was the first material to be both entirely 2 in origin, and thermosetting. The addition of an inert filler also reduces the cost of molding. Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE): Polytetrafluroethylene is also known as Teflon. The preparation process takes approximately 20-30 minutes from start to finish. It is usually brown/amber but can be made in a variety of bright colors. Bakelite falls under this category of plastics. Chemistry Assignment Help, polymers.., preparation of bakelite. Combination of phenol and formaldehyde to form ortho and para hydroxy benzyl alcohols. Preparation of Bakelite proceeds via reactions: (A) Electrophilic addition and dehydration (B) Condensation and elimination (C) Nucleophilic addition Preparation of Bakelite Date: 28-09-10 Muhammad Usman (2008-chem-02-B) Properties of required chemicals: 1. DELHI PRIVATE SCHOOL DUBAI CERTIFICATE Certified that … Share Tweet Share Pin it... of potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium and barium are more reactive than magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide.  Bakelite is the commercial name for phenol formaldehyde resin. Formation of Novalac from ortho hydroxy benzyl alcohol. Answers. To make it stronger and to make more of it, filler such as sawdust is often added. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. It is the 21st century and we literally live in the world of plastics. Preparation of Bakelite proceeds via reactions : A. Electrophilic substitution and dehydration. This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. It must be mounted onto bakelite puck, polished using finer and finer grits as well as polishing slurry, and finally it … (ii) It is … So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. It can be easily molded and hence is used in the making of various products. Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material. CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 12. Bakelite is a plastic that is used for making many products, ranging from telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles. The dielectric constant of Bakelite falls in the range of 4.4 to 5.4. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. This creates a liquid condensation product, referred to as Bakelite A, which is soluble in alcohol, acetone, or additional phenol. The answers to questions 1-13 are given below with their explanations. Also, the reaction should be conducted under pressure, otherwise the product formed will be brittle and a low density material. Forum: Toughening of Networks and Gel Through Molecular Design. The preparation of molding materials from resins of this inventien follow the customary practice of premixing the resin with the fibrous filler and passing between heated rolls to fuse the resin and secure a uniform impregnation of Sthe filler. Before we move on to the preparation of Bakelite, it is important to know how a polymer is prepared. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. The reaction that takes place is highly exothermic, the loss of water molecule result in the cooling process. Authentic bakelite jewelry can sell for thousands of dollars, so it's important you learn how to tell the difference between genuine and imposter plastic jewelry. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. It is always fascinating to study about polymers and its chemistry as they offer a wide range of possibilities to be put into our everyday life. 176,809, filed November 27, 1937, Patent No. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Raw materials used in the preparation of bakelite are :-phenol and formaldehyde. Proper preparation of metallographic specimens to determine microstructure and content requires that a rigid step-by-step process be followed. … sample preparation. Overview of Structure Of Bakelite. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. The method of producing glyoxal-containing urea formaldehyde resin with low emission of phenol involves condensation of carbamide with a mixture of glyoxal and formaldehyde, the said mixture containing 39.7-40.1% of the latter. D. Condensation and elimination. Asbestos, wood flour, cotton flock, cotton pulp, gypsum, mica etc., are a few reinforcing fillers that are added in molding resins like Bakelite. Bakelite was also particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance (not … The colorful bangles, earrings and bracelets were widely used. This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. Because of the relatively small amounts available, after grinding and mixing with liquid Bakelite, carbonized samples were mounted in small holes (10 mm in diameter and 3 mm deep) drilled in larger cylindrical Bakelite blocks. It is due to a number of important properties of the first synthetic plastic, Bakelite that it has been aptly named as 'material of a thousand uses'. Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here. BAKELITE CORP . Bakelite was first used as insulators against heat and electricity. Because of this, it gets transformed into a thermosetting plastic. Text Solution. Following are a few properties that are enhanced by the addition of fillers: Greater thermal, electrical and chemical resistance. The Bakelite preparation can be demonstrated in the following steps of reactions-. Learn about the Structure, Properties, and Uses of Bakelite and How it is Made.  It is usually brown/amber but can be made in a variety of bright colors. Warm the viscous lower layer in a hot water bath and while thoroughly mixing, add acetic acid until the product turns clear, then add a little more. Bakelite Structure condensation was completed. May 3 • General • 20529 Views • 5 Comments on Preparation of Teflon or PTFE. It is noticed that a lot of convex particles and concave holes exist on the fracture surfaces of the simple polymer blends. I would like to know the percentage of phenol and formaldehyde for making bakelite, and also the preparation or mechanism of bakelite. C. Nucleophilic addition and dehydration. We see that a number of things like the plastic handle of utensils, telephones, bangles, automobile parts etc., are made of Bakelite. Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here. The structure for the cross-linked polymer, known by the commercial name of Bakelite is given below. Water molecule is removed in the process. BAKELITE CORP . It begins with heating of phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of a catalyst such as hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride, or the base ammonia. The physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of Bakelite make it a widely used commercial polymers.  Since Bakelite can be made into different colors, Bakelite jewelry was once very much in use. Since Bakelite can be made into different colors, Bakelite jewelry was once very much in use. Buy These Notes Preview. Explain with reaction the preparation of bakelite - 19161329 Modern day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907. Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material. [6] When phenol (C 6 H 6 O), which is an organic compound [1] and a common disinfectant [3] , is mixed with formaldehyde (CH 2 O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat [2] … Uses of Bakelite : (i) It is used for making electrical switches and plugs. Preparation of polymers, namely Bakelite is a simple laboratory procedure.  The dielectric constant of Bakelite falls in the range of 4.4 to 5.4,  Greater thermal, electrical and chemical resistance. Soft bakelites with low degree of polymerisation are used as bonding glue for laminated wooden planks, in the preparation of-varnishes and lacquers . Drop the temperature on the water bath to between …  It can be easily molded and hence is used in the making of various products. Bakelite was invented in the early twentieth century but it is an important topic of study even in this 21st century. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Preparation of bakelite proceeds via reactions. I would like to know the percentage of phenol and formaldehyde for making bakelite. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. Artificial jewelry made of metals or some other alloys may sometimes result into allergies or skin irritation, but carefully manufactured Bakelite jewelry are cent percent safe to wear which gave it an added advantage in the market. This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. Proper preparation of metallographic specimens is a key step to determine the accurate microstructure of a material and often requires sectioning, mounting, course grinding, fine grinding, polishing, etching and microscopic examination. Bakelite was definitely a remarkable invention that paved the way to the 'Age of Plastics'. Along with fillers, catalysts are used to accelerate the curing process (the process that results in the hardening and toughening of polymers by forming cross-linked polymer chains).

Before we move on to the preparation of Bakelite, it is important to know how a polymer is prepared. When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound and a common disinfectant, is mixed with … Answer. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Then heat and pressure is applied to it. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. Many cheaper substitutes for Bakelite have been investigated which are replacing its use in the market. 20g phenol and 36-40 percent of 25g formaldehyde. It has been aptly named as the ‘Material of a Thousand Uses’. E.g., PVC. Preparation of Alcohol by Fermentation Fermentation in the environment is the earliest method for the preparation of ethyl alcohol by the chemical catalyst and uses for the manufacture of different types of drinks brands like beer, wine, whisky, and brandy. In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. The two major classifications of plastics are- Thermoplastics and Thermosets. This is why they are used to make a number of electronic gadgets, switches and automobile parts. Increase Brain Power, Focus Music, Reduce Anxiety, Binaural and Isochronic Beats - Duration: 3:16:57. This thermosetting plastic created a revolution in the world of product design. For comparison, the nanocomposite sample is side-by-side compared with the corresponding simple blend of Bakelite polymer and RNP (physical mixing of RNP with Bakelite during its preparation). We may not realize but we live in a world of polymers, and everything and anything connected to us or our surroundings is chemistry. Answers. International Classes: C08G8/28. Bakelite is a Polymer made up of the Monomers Phenol and Formaldehyde. Hence, it is a thermosetting plastic. Prepare phenol formaldehyde plastic (Bakelite) : In order to view a metal specimen under an optical microscope, the sample must be prepared using several steps. The preparation of molding materials from resins of this inventien follow the customary practice of premixing the resin with the fibrous filler and passing between heated rolls to fuse the resin and secure a uniform impregnation of Sthe filler. Document Preview. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. Bakelite requires two monomers- phenol and formaldehyde. The method is designed to produce bakelite varnish LB-SP, representing mainly alcohol solution rezol formaldehyde resin obtained by condensing phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of dead-burned magnesia or magnesium oxide as a catalyst. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. Preparation Method Phenolic resin and aldehyde compound can be prepared by polycondensation reaction under the action of acidic or basic catalyst. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Extracts from the notes are below, to see the PDF you'll receive please use the links above. The cloth is also made with cellulose paper, synthetic yarn, cotton, glass fabrics, or unwoven fabrics. This article is cited by 98 publications. I. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. Initial methods of preparing bakelite involved the heating of formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of one of the following catalysts -zinc chloride (ZnCl 2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonia (NH 3). International Classes: C08G8/28. 2,234,548, of March 11, 1941, for Phenolic resins. The application is a continuation-in-part of a copendIng application, Serial No.  The ability to be molded makes it a part of the commodities being used in modern life. Pro Lite, Vedantu Formation of Bakelite follows electrophilic substitution Reaction of Phenol with formaldehyde followed by condensation. Structure of Acetylene - The Triple Bonds, Dichloromethane Uses and Effects on Environment, Vedantu Thermoplastics can be softened by heat and can be molded. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived  Being a good insulator, it is used in non-conducting parts of radios and other electrical devices like sockets, switches, automobile distribution caps, insulation of wires, brake pads etc. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Combination of phenol and formaldehyde to form ortho and para hydroxy benzyl alcohols. Title: Bakelite preparation report Description: preparation of bakelite in lab. How to Mount, Polish, and Etch a Sample for Optical Microscopy. Article Views are the COUNTER-compliant sum of full text article downloads since November 2008 (both PDF and HTML) across all institutions and individuals. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. Primary Class: 528/140. The plastic furniture at homes, offices and schools, the electric sockets, plugs, devices, buckets- everything has become an essential part of human life. The answers to questions 1-13 are given below with their explanations. Music for body and spirit - Meditation music Recommended for you Thermosets or thermosetting plastics on the other hand become hard and rigid on cooling and retain their shape. As ways were found to manufacture Bakelite in bright colors, it began to be used for all sorts of decorative objects, especially jewelry. Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours. Proper understanding of the structure and properties of synthetic polymers like Bakelite is, thus, important in polymer chemistry. Bakelite is a thermosetting resin—that is, once molded, it retains its shape even if heated or subjected to various solvents. Water molecule is removed in the process. Heated further, the product becomes partially soluble and can still be softened by heat. It is liquefiable and malleable when heated and becomes permanently hard and rigid on cooling. (ii) It is … Primary Class: 528/140. II. Different substitutes of phenol and formaldehyde can also be used depending on the application. When novalac resin is further heated in presence of HCHO producer i.e. Bakelite, trademarked synthetic resin invented in 1907 by Belgian-born American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Bakelite is the commercial name for phenol formaldehyde resin. Glacial acetic acid 2. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. Chemistry investigatory project - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. However, the high temperatures required to create this tends to caus… The reaction involved is condensation reaction in the presence of either a basic or acidic catalyst. In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. Preparation of bakelite: Bakelite is the commercial name for the polymer obtained by the polymerization of phenol and formaldehyde. BAKELITE - The birth of modem plastics reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Economics & Business subject. TEFLON: Teflon is a plastic like substance which is produced by polymerizing tetrafluoroethylene (CF2 = CF2). Glacial Acetic acid: Harmful: Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. Share Tweet Share Pin it... of potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium and barium are more reactive than magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide. B. Electrophilic addition and dehydration. Pro Lite, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 12. However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. As we now know the Bakelite preparation method as well as its structure, let us now have a look at the properties of Bakelite. C Sample Preparation for Photometry. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. This can occur at the ortho and For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. (1) Condensation and elimination (2) Electrophilic addition and dehydration (3) Electrophilic substitution and … Bakelite Bakelite is one of the earliest commercial plastics. Preparation of Bakelite Modern day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907. Phenol-Formaldehyde Polymers(Bakelite and related polymers):-they are obtained by condensation of phenol with formaldehyde in presence of either an acid or abase catalyst the initial product is Navolac which is points.Melamine-Formaldehyde Polymers:-Melamine and formaldehyde undergo condensation copolymerisation to form – melamine – Formaldehyde polymer also called … The properties of Bakelite are studied to get information regarding its commercial usage. Although Bakelite was the trade name of the first thermosetting phenolic resin, it was not the only one. The use of Bakelite might have been reduced today when compared to the earlier years, but it is still in use. It is used to make buttons, clocks, washing machine impeller, toys, kitchenware and much more. Polymers are formed by combining 'monomer' or single units using a range of reaction mechanisms. When made with this procedure, it is often an amber clear solid. It shows high resistance towards heat, electricity and chemical action. (1) Condensation and elimination (2) Electrophilic addition and dehydration (3) Electrophilic substitution and … The colorful bangles, earrings and bracelets were widely used. Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours. Preparation of polymers, namely Bakelite is a simple laboratory procedure. Hence, it is a thermosetting plastic. Raw materials used in the preparation of bakelite are :-phenol and formaldehyde. This is why they are used to make a number of electronic gadgets, switches and automobile parts. Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here. anon124253 November 5, 2010 . Formation of Novalac from ortho hydroxy benzyl alcohol. Unlike linear and branched polymers (see demonstration 25.2), which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. Soft bakelites with low degree of polymerisation are used as bonding glue for laminated wooden planks, in the preparation of-varnishes and lacquers . 3.0k VIEWS. The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. HARD. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Watch Preparation of Phenol formaldehyde - Bakelite in English from Identifying Polymers and Condensation Polymerisation and Some Commercially Important Polymers here. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. It was between 1907-1909 that the Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland successfully developed the first commercialized synthetic molding plastic, Bakelite.

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